By William Robert Fearon (Auth.)
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This article is meant for undergraduate and starting graduate scholars in chemistry and biochemistry learning amino acids and peptides. The authors be aware of amino acids and peptides with no specified discussions of proteins, whereas giving the entire crucial heritage chemistry, together with series decision, synthesis and spectroscopic equipment.
What's a chemical compound? Compounds are elements which are or extra parts mixed jointly chemically in a customary percentage by means of weight. Compounds are throughout us - they comprise customary issues, resembling water, and extra esoteric elements, resembling triuranium octaoxide, the main regularly taking place average resource for uranium.
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Its significance is unknown. Group III : Boron, Aluminium. n. w. 11. This non-metal has been detected in all plants examined. The value is least in cereals (the ash of which contains about 0-5 gm. ), high in t h e beetroot, and maximal in the date fruit (30 mg. B per kg. pulp). Grape vines a n d wine are rich in boron. Sea water contains about 4-5 mg. B per litre. Borates must form an important p a r t of the buffer mechanism of sea water, being second only t o carbonates, and exceeding t h e combined effects of phosphates, arsenates and silicates.
He observed that in malignant tumours or in the blood and liver in cases of leucocythaemia—both tissues in which mitosis is pro- 24 AN I N T R O D U C T I O N TO BIOCHEMISTRY ceeding very rapidly—the zinc content was from 3 to 18 times t h e normal. Cruickshank (1936) has surveyed t h e sources a n d distribu tion of zinc in relation to h u m a n nutrition, and claims t h a t tubercu losis is associated with a zinc deficiency, and malignant conditions with chronic zinc poisoning. Beri-beri m a y be due partly t o zinc deficiency (Eggleton, 1939).
I per 100 gm. fresh tissue. Other organs have values ranging from 1 mg. in liver and kidney down to 0-01 mg. in blood. The iodine value of the thyroid depends primarily on the iodine intake, and to a lesser extent on species, age, and sex. The content is usually inversely proportional to the size of the gland, and is subnormal in all condi tions of simple goitre. The blood iodine level may rise to 0-04 mg. I per 100 ml. in exophthalmic goitre, and fall to less than 0-003 in simple goitre. The recorded urinary output ranges from 0 030-173 mg.