By J. Patrick Fitch
This instructional can assist technical execs in optics be sure no matter if their applied sciences have power software within the lifestyles sciences. It is also invaluable as a ''prep class'' for extra unique books on biology and biotechnology, filling the distance among basic and high-level approaches.
- easy Biology
- Nucleic Acids because the Blueprint
- Manipulating Nucleic Acids and Proteins
- An built-in method for organic Discovery
- DNA Sequencing
- Detecting Nucleic Acids
- Protein Structure
- Appendix A: devices and Measures
- Appendix B: Nonscientific Issues
- prompt Reading
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Additional info for An Engineering Introduction to Biotechnology
9. Cartoon comparing the structural differences between (a) Gram-positive and (b) Gram-negative organisms. The Gram-positive membrane uses a thick peptidoglycan layer and other molecules as a cell wall, and the Gram-negative membrane uses a thinner peptidoglycan layer in the periplasmic space. The different attachment molecules between the peptidoglycan layers and the neighboring bilipid membrane(s) are not shown. A bacterium that produces disease is called a pathogen. Bacteria that cause human diseases are known as human pathogens.
Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST®) is a popular software approach to making these types of comparisons computationally. 1 Sizing DNA and Proteins Since nucleic acids have an inherent negative charge, an electric field can be used to apply a force to the molecule and move it through a medium like gel. By selecting a propagation medium that provides appropriate “friction,” the nucleic acids can be sorted by size (length). Depending on the application, different gels, electric fields, and instruments are needed.
DNA mRNA AAA AAA AAC AAC AAG AAG AAT AAU ACA ACA ACC ACC ACG ACG ACT ACU AGA AGA AGC AGC AGG AGG AGT AGU ATA AUA ATC AUC ATG AUG ATT AUU Amino Acid Abbrev. Lysine K-Lys Asparagine N-Asn Lysine K-Lys Asparagine N-Asn Threonine T-Thr Threonine T-Thr Threonine T-Thr Threonine T-Thr Arginine R-Arg Serine S-Ser Arginine R-Arg Serine S-Ser Isoleucine I-Ile Isoleucine I-Ile Methionine M-Met Isoleucine I-Ile DNA GAA GAC GAG GAT GCA GCC GCG GCT GGA GGC GGG GGT GTA GTC GTG GTT mRNA GAA GAC GAG GAU GCA GCC GCG GCU GGA GGC GGG GGU GUA GUC GUG GUU Amino Acid Glutamic Acid Aspartic Acid Glutamic Acid Aspartic Acid Alanine Alanine Alanine Alanine Glycine Glycine Glycine Glycine Valine Valine Valine Valine CAA CAC CAG CAT CCA CCC CCG CCT CGA CGC CGG CGT CTA CTC CTG CTT Glutamine Histidine Glutamine Histidine Proline Proline Proline Proline Arginine Arginine Arginine Arginine Leucine Leucine Leucine Leucine TAA TAC TAG TAT TCA TCC TCG TCT TGA TGC TGG TGT TTA TTC TTG TTT UAA UAC UAG UAU UCA UCC UCG UCU UGA UGC UGG UGU UUA UUC UUG UUU Stop Codon Tyrosine Stop Codon Tyrosine Serine Serine Serine Serine Stop Codon Cysteine Tryptophan Cysteine Leucine Phenylalanine Leucine Phenylalanine CAA CAC CAG CAU CCA CCC CCG CCU CGA CGC CGG CGU CUA CUC CUG CUU Q-Gln H-His Q-Gln H-His P-Pro P-Pro P-Pro P-Pro R-Arg R-Arg R-Arg R-Arg L-Leu L-Leu L-Leu L-Leu Abbrev.