Download Air-Sea Exchange of Gases and Particles by Lutz Hasse (auth.), Peter S. Liss, W. George N. Slinn (eds.) PDF

By Lutz Hasse (auth.), Peter S. Liss, W. George N. Slinn (eds.)

ISBN-10: 9400971710

ISBN-13: 9789400971714

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E. pressure levels) could be replaced by isentropic surfaces (see Danielson, 1974). Complications arise since an air parcel will remain on its isentropic surface only under adiabatic conditions. g. temperature changes caused by radiation and evaporation/condensation. The change of potential temperature could in principle be calculated, and the parcel moved to a revised isentropic level. But whether trajectories are determined on pressure levels or ~sen­ tropic surfaces, the difficulty remains: either one needs vertical movements explicitly (to select the appropriate pressure level), or one needs diabatic heating by condensation, which is modelled from vertical movements.

In convective conditions we,therefore,usually find a surface layer with non-zero gradients INTRODUCTORY METEOROLOGY AND FLUID DYNAMICS 39 of temperature and wind speed, up to a few tens of meters, with a well-mixed layer above (constant potential temperature, no varlation of wind speed and direction). , in the Ekman spiral). In the stable situation, the boundary layer is compressed to the height range, where frictionally induced turbulence can overcome buoyant damping. In the unstable case, the height of the boundary layer is the height of the unstable or well-mixed layer.

In order to understand the processes in the Planetary Boundary Layer,we discuss turbulent motion first. Any fluid (this includes L. HASSE 36 liquids and gases) may flow either in a laminar or turbulent state of motion. These two states are best demonstrated with an experiment by Reynolds. In his study of flow through a pipe he made the movements of the fluid visible by introducing a fine filament of colour. He found two distinct types of flow: in "laminar" flow, the filament formed a straight line, indicating that the flow was layered.

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